Modalities refer to the scanner/method used to obtain a medical image. We have the latest technology in scanners that offers the highest quality images with minimal radiation exposure. Having the latest technology is also key for detecting diseases in their earliest stages and for determining effectiveness of treatment plan.
CT (Computed Tomography)
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography)
PET/MR (Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
The creation of 3D models from traditional imaging methods. Many scans are made and then combined by computer to produce a 3D model which can then be manipulated by the radiologist interpreting the image. A significant amount of detail is then reviewed on a computer screen in 3D fashion.
Computed Tomography or CT creates highly detailed images of the inside of the body. Unlike a traditional x-ray which shows subtle outlines of the organs, CT is able to show the organ in detail. The images are created by an x-ray unit that rotates around the patient. In some cases a contrast material is used to enhance the images of the inside of the body. These images can then be interpreted by a radiologist on a computer monitor. CT imaging provides excellent anatomic information.
Fluoroscopy uses x-ray to produce real-time video images. After the x-rays pass through the patient they are captured by a device called an image intensifier and converted into light. The light is then captured by a TV camera and displayed on a video monitor for interpretation by a radiologist. The radiologist uses fluoroscopy to watch what is going on inside the body during certain procedures and exams.
A mammogram is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts. A mammogram is used to aid in the early detection and diagnosis of breast disease in women. An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. Three recent advances in mammography include digital mammography, computer-aided detection and breast tomosynthesis, all of which are available at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI provides very detailed information that is not always visible using other methods. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor by a radiologist. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases.
Nuclear medicine exams assess the function of organs by using small amounts of radioactive material (radiopharmaceuticals) and a special camera to create images. The radiopharmaceutical is either taken by mouth or injected into the vein and is attracted to specific organs, bones or tissues. These areas of the body then emit gamma rays that are detected by the camera. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages, as well as, a patient's immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are non-invasive. Radioactive emissions from the radiopharmaceutical are detected by a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information for interpretation by a nuclear medicine radiologist.
A PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography) scanner is able to perform both a nuclear medicine scan and CT (computed tomography) scan at the same time. The affect is that the nuclear medicine image is superimposed with computed tomography (CT) to produce special views, a practice known as image fusion or co-registration. These views allow the information from two different exams to be correlated and interpreted on one image, leading to more precise information and accurate diagnoses. For more information refer to Nuclear Medicine and CT modalities.
A PET/MR scanner is able to perform both a nuclear medicine scan and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan at the same time. We have one of the first PET/MR scanners in the world. MRI offers excellent contrast among soft tissues while PET offers excellent images of molecular activity within the body. Therefore, the combination of PET with MRI provides many advantages to the patient for modern medical diagnosis.
A single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan is a type of nuclear imaging test that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs. A SPECT scan integrates two technologies to view your body: computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material or tracer. The tracer allows doctors to see how blood flows to tissues and organs. Before the SPECT scan a patient is injected with the "tracer. A computer collects the information emitted by gamma rays and translates them into two-dimensional and three dimensional images for interpretation by a Nuclear Medicine radiologist.
Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves the use of a small probe and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The probe collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Conventional ultrasound displays the images on computer monitors for interpretation by a radiologist. We have the most advanced ultrasound technology including three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images.
An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive, quick and painless medical test that helps radiologists and physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.
An abscess is a collection of pus within the body. An abscess occurs when the body tries to fight an infection within the tissues of the body, sending white blood cells to fight further infection. The blood cells collect around the site of infection, accumulating to form pus. An infection is the invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body. An infection may remain localized, or it may spread body-wide.
The lower and upper extremities that extend from the main body.
Any condition affecting the blood and/or blood vessels. Bleeding disorders are a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and prolonged bleeding after an injury or it can begin on its own. Blood vessels are the tubes that transport blood around the body.
Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of humans. They support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. Bones come in a variety of shapes and have a complex internal and external structure, are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions. At birth, there are over 270 bones in an infant human's body, but many of these fuse together as the child grows, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in a typical adult. The largest bone in the human body is the femur and the smallest bone of the 206 is the stapes.
The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It functions as a primary receiver, organizer, and distributor of information for the body. It has a right half and a left half, each of which is called a hemisphere.
Any disorder of the breast. May present in the tissue in the breast or the nipple. The majority of breast diseases are noncancerous.
Any breathing related problem, chronic or long-term. Generally occurs in nose, nasal passage and lungs.
Cancer is a term used for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are more than 100 different types of cancers that can affect various organs of the body. A tumor is a mass of tissue. It can be malignant or benign and has no physiological function.
Any medical condition impacting the health of infants, children, and adolescents; their growth and development; and their opportunity to achieve full potential as adults.
Medical treatment that modifies or improves the appearance of a physical feature, irregularity, or defect.
A digestive disorder is a broad spectrum term and can include diseases affecting the stomach, small bowel, large bowel, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. These may be disorders of any of the phases and processes of digestion such as chewing, propulsion through the gastrointestinal tract and absorption of nutrients.
A person with gallbladder disease has inflammation of the gallbladder, usually caused by gallstones. Gallstones can obstruct the bile duct, causing the gallbladder to become swollen and inflamed. Gallbladder disease is very common. Those who are over the age of 40, Caucasian, Native American, or suffer from obesity are at highest risk for gallbladder disease. Most people recover completely with surgery to remove the gallbladder.
Head: the top part of the body where the brain, eyes, nose, ears, mouth and jaws are situated. Thyroid: one of the largest endocrine glands. Found in the neck. The thyroid controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. Neck: the part between the head and body of a human. It joins the head to the rest of the body.
Heart disease is a broad term used to describe a range of diseases that affect the heart. The most common cause of heart disease is a narrowing or blockage of the arteries that supply the heart (coronary arteries). Heart disease also includes heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias), heart infections and congenital heart defects that one is born with.
Any disease or condition related to hormones, including the endocrine system which is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, especially the body's ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a host of other hormone-related disorders.
Any physical damage to the body or a body part, including wounds.
The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to move. A joint is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage.
Any condition affecting the kidneys, prostrate, pelvis, bladder, urinary tract or penis.
Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large organ in the upper right abdomen that aids in digestion and removes waste products from the blood. Could include cirrhosis, inflammation, tumors or metabolic disorders.
Muscles: Body tissue producing movement. A tissue that can undergo repeated contraction and relaxation so that it is able to produce movement of body parts, maintain tension, or pump fluids within the body. Tendons: The soft tissue by which muscle attaches to bone. Tendons are somewhat flexible, but tough.
Unpleasant physical sensation. The acutely unpleasant physical discomfort experienced by somebody who is violently struck, injured, or ill. A feeling of discomfort in a particular part of the body.
Pregnancy: The physical condition of a woman carrying unborn offspring inside her body, from fertilization to birth. Maternal: Any condition or disease relating to, belonging to, or characteristic of a mother.
In women, the organs that are directly involved in producing eggs and in conceiving and carrying babies; in men, the organs directly involved in creating, storing, and delivering sperm to fertilize an egg.
Natural layer covering body. The external protective membrane or covering of the human body, consisting of the dermis and epidermis and often covered in hair.
The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The spine can be categorized according to level of the body: i.e., cervical spine (neck), thoracic spine (upper and middle back), and lumbar spine (lower back). The spines of the vertebrae protrude at the base of the back of the neck and in the middle of the back. These spines protect the spinal cord from injury from behind.
Stroke: loss of brain function due to a disturbance in the blood supply to the brain due to lack of blood flow or hemorrhage. An aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of a blood vessel or heart.